Conflicts are an unavoidable reality when dealing with distributed systems. And make no mistake: client-server is a distributed system.

CouchDB and PouchDB differ from many other sync solutions, because they bring the issue of conflicts front-and-center. With PouchDB, conflict resolution is entirely under your control.

PouchDB exactly implements CouchDB's replication algorithm, so conflict resolution works the same in both. For the purposes of this article, "CouchDB" and "PouchDB" may be used interchangeably.

In CouchDB, conflicts can occur in two places: immediately, when you try to commit a new revision, or later, when two peers have committed changes to the same document. Let's call these immediate conflicts and eventual conflicts.

Immediate conflicts

Immediate conflicts can occur with any API that takes a rev or a document with _rev as input – put(), post(), remove(), bulkDocs(), and putAttachment(). They manifest as a 409 (conflict) error:

var myDoc = {
  _id: 'someid',
  _rev: '1-somerev'
db.put(myDoc).then(function () {
  // success
}).catch(function (err) {
  if ( === 'conflict') {
    // conflict!
  } else {
    // some other error

In your code, you should always be handling conflicts. No matter how unlikely it may seem, 409s can and do occur.

For instance, if you are doing live replication, a document may be modified by somebody else while the user is working on it. If the remote changes are replicated to the local database before the user tries to commit their changes, then they will receive the above 409 error.


In many cases, the most practical solution to the 409 problem is to retry the put() until it succeeds. If the user's intended change can be expressed as a delta (i.e. a change that doesn't depend on the current revision), then this is very easy to achieve.

Borrowing a phrase from traditional databases, let's call this an upsert ("update or insert"), and use the pouchdb-upsert plugin to implement it:

function myDeltaFunction(doc) {
  doc.counter = doc.counter || 0;
  return doc;

db.upsert('my_id', myDeltaFunction).then(function () {
  // success!
}).catch(function (err) {
  // error (not a 404 or 409)

This upsert() function takes a docId and deltaFunction, where the deltaFunction is just a function that takes a document and outputs a new document. (If the document does not exist, then an empty document is provided.)

pouchdb-upsert also offers a putIfNotExists() function, which will create a document if it doesn't exist already. For more details, see the plugin's documentation.

Eventual conflicts

Now, let's move on to the second type: eventual conflicts.

Imagine two PouchDB databases have both gone offline. The two separate users each make modifications to the same document, and then they come back online at a later time.

Both users committed changes to the same version of the document, and their local databases did not throw 409 errors. What happens then?

This is the classic "conflict" scenario, and CouchDB handles it very elegantly. By default, CouchDB will choose an arbitrary winner based on a deterministic algorithm, which means both users will see the same winner once they're back online. However, since the replication history is stored, you can always go back in time to resolve the conflict.

To detect if a document is in conflict, you use the {conflicts: true} option when you get() it.

db.get('docid', {conflicts: true}).then(function (doc) {
  // do something with the doc
}).catch(function (err) {
  // handle any errors

If the document has conflicts, then the doc will be returned with a _conflicts attribute, which may contain the revision IDs of conflicting revisions.

For instance, imagine the doc returned is the following:

  "_id": "docid",
  "_rev": "2-x",
  "_conflicts": ["2-y"]

Here we have two separate revisions (2-x and 2-y) written by two separate databases, and one database's revision (2-x) has arbitrarily won.

Normally, _revs look more like 2-c1592ce7b31cc26e91d2f2029c57e621, i.e. a digit followed by a very long hash. In these examples, x and y are used in place of the hash, for simplicity’s sake.

Notice that the document's current revision starts with 2-, and the conflicting version also starts with 2-, indicating that they're both at the same level of the revision tree. (Revision hashes start with 1-, 2-, 3-, etc., which indicates their distance from the first, "root" revision. The root always starts with 1-.)

Both databases will see the same conflict, assuming replication has completed. In fact, all databases in the network will see the exact same revision history – much like Git.

To fetch the losing revision, you simply get() it using the rev option:

db.get('docid', {rev: '2-y'}).then(function (doc) {
  // do something with the doc
}).catch(function (err) {
  // handle any errors

At this point, you can present both versions to the user, or resolve the conflict automatically using your preferred conflict resolution strategy: last write wins, first write wins, RCS, etc.

To mark a conflict as resolved, all you need to do is remove() the unwanted revisions. So for instance, to remove '2-y', you would do:

db.remove('docid', '2-y').then(function (doc) {
  // yay, we're done
}).catch(function (err) {
  // handle any errors

If you want to resolve the conflict by creating a new revision, you simply put() a new document on top of the current winner, and make sure that the losing revision is deleted.

Another conflict resolution strategy is to design your database so that conflicts are impossible. In practice, this means that you never update or remove existing documents – you only create new documents.

This strategy has been called the "every doc is a delta" strategy. A classic use-case for this would be a checkbook app, where every document is simply an operation that increases or decreases the account balance:

{_id: new Date().toJSON(), change: 100} // balance increased by $100
{_id: new Date().toJSON(), change: -50} // balance decreased by $50
{_id: new Date().toJSON(), change: 200} // balance increased by $200

In this system, it is impossible for two documents to conflict, because the document _ids are just timestamps. Ledger transactions are recorded in the order they were made, and at the end of the day, you only need to do an allDocs() or query() operation to sum the result.

The wisdom of this strategy can be expressed by the maxim: "Accountants don't use erasers". Like a diligent accountant, your app can just add new documents when you want to make a change, rather than going back and scrubbing out previous changes.

There is also a PouchDB plugin that implements this strategy: delta-pouch.

Now that we've settled our conflicts, let's take a look at the changes feed.